Sunday, September 9, 2012

Potential: Multicultural Education & Instructional Technology

Recovery of Meaning (a summary of Diaz) 
Multicultural education’s primary aim is equitable educational opportunity for all.  Basic assumptions must be challenged and reform of current policies and practices must occur. Multicultural education must also educate all students to become successful members of society. A basic assumption of the author is that a democratic nation cannot survive without a populace capable of striving in pluralism (Diaz, 2001, p. 13). Multicultural education benefits everyone. Interventions focused on improving the performance of minority populations are also good practices for all students. Critique is changing the twentieth century’s Anglo-centric curriculum.
Challenging multicultural education is the fear of a monolithic insurgency against Anglo American culture. Ironically, those who have always held the power most fear subjugation. Language is subverted to maintain the dominance of those in power. Their interests are the common good while marginalized groups are special interests. This terminology allows the dominant discourse to further marginalize their experiences. Curriculum must be reformed to allow space for the voices that challenge this status quo.
A transformative approach to curriculum change allows for multiple perspectives and fundamental reorganization of normative assumptions. As opposed to the contribution or the additive approach, which employ broad representative examples, the transformative approach allows for genuine exploration of multiple ways of knowing. The decision-making and social-action approach allows space for students to extend understanding.

Reconstruction of Meaning (a reading of Diaz) 
In certain disciplines where rhetoric is more highly conducive to practice, such as literature, philosophy, or anthropology, multicultural education is enacted in classroom practice with easily identifiable effects. However, in other disciplines, those that might be considered more pragmatic in nature such as instructional technology, it is sometimes less evident how to actively honor multiple ways of knowing. I do not intend to imply that the potential is limited, only that the ties are perhaps not as overt.
Banks emphasizes that multicultural education should do two primary things: (1) promote equity and (2) develop awareness of plurality in order to promote successful democratic citizenship. I would contend if the goal is Nussbaumian ideals of democratic participation, instructional technology is a primary discipline for reaching that goal. The potential of technology is rich, pluralistic understandings and more equitable access.

Reading at the Edges (connections) 
            In her presidential address to AERA, Gloria Ladson-Billings (2006) developed the metaphor of educational debt instead of the achievement gap. Her metaphor allows for the articulation of responsibility and methods for repaying it. In instructional technology another gap exists, the digital divide. It describes the inequity of access to technology for all students. Instructional technology has a great power for supporting multicultural education but it faces the challenge of a “technology debt,” if I may transfer Ladson-Billings’ metaphor. The infrastructure in the United States is improving. The latest FCC report on broadband data (August 2012) stated that access to the most current broadband has risen from 20% to 82% since 2009 in American households. Unfortunately, access is often limited by financial concerns. As long as broadband and electronics remain prohibitively expensive for many marginalized American families, the same inequities plague our system. Ladson-Billings spoke to the responsibility of the community to support education. It is also our responsibility to support access to the tools that can power that education. While progress is being made through grants and other means, much will always need to be done to struggle toward bridging the digital divide.

Diaz, Carlos F. (2001). Multicultural Education in the 21st Century. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc. (Chapter 2- Multicultural Education: Goals, Possibilities, and Challenges, p. 11-22).
Ladson-Billings, G. J. (2006, April 9). From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in U. S. schools. In AERA Awards Presentation and Presidential Address. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from
Rapaport, R. (2009, October 27). The new literacy: Scenes from the digital divide 2.0. Edutopia. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from
United States, Federal Communications Commission, Chief, International Bureau. (2012, August 13). International broadband data report. Washington, D.C.: Federal Communication Commision. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from

Saturday, June 16, 2012

Collecting & Sharing Stock Photos

It is important when developing instructional materials to avoid potential copyright issues. One great way to do this is to take your own stock photos to save for future use. Think about things you might like to be able to post pictures of on a course website or use in a presentation. Science teachers might want a picture of a beaker or a lab or a tree, history teachers might want pictures from a museum, English teachers might want pictures to inspire poetry or writing projects, math teachers might want pictures that could be used to show how equations appear in real life like a half-built bridge or building, etc. You may want pictures of campus or the capitol or a pencil or backpack. Foreign language teachers may want to take some vocabulary pictures.
I used picasaweb to store and organize my pictures so that I can also share them with others and post them as part of my professional teaching portfolio. Here's how I did it: (be sure to click on the photos if all you can see are little gray icons)
  1. Start by logging into Picasa and clicking upload.
  2. Name your album
  3. Highlight and drag your images here 
  4. Click Ok at the bottom once it's done uploading 
  5. click on one of your picture and select add location 
  6. a map pops up where you can search for a place 
  7. zoom in and move the pin to exactly where you want to identify and click save location 
  8. click on the + tag symbol to the right of tags 
  9. type in some words that describe the picture to make it searchable (if you need to use a phrase or multiple words, use "quotes" around them) 
  10. Click on the title of the album at the top of the screen to go back to a full overview and choose "Actions" and them "album properties" 
  11. here you can change the title and description and other info but most importantly! check the privacy settings! You may choose "public on the web"; "Limited, anyone with the link"; or "Only you" depending on who you want to be able to see the album. If you wish to share it, choose one of the first two named options 
  12. save changes takes you back to the overview, now chose "captions" 
  13. this gives you an overview where you can tab through and create a caption for each photo 
  14. going back to the overview screen notice the options on the right 
  15. click on "link to this album" to get the link to share with others 

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

SIOT 2012 - Opening Day

For the next five weeks, I will be participating in the Summer Institute for Online Teaching (SIOT). SIOT is a Sloan-C award for Excellence recipient. Today we met for the first synchronous face-to-face meeting of the hybrid institute. Dr. Mandernach's presentation was titled "Teaching Online: Where do you begin?" She discussed things to avoid in an online class. The following is my (hopefully "accurate") notes on her top 10 list of Don't's:

10. Don't use the same teaching strategies you use in a face-to-face course! Explore the unique opportunities available online.
  9. Don't overload the course with too many resources. Point students to the most important information.
  8. Don't integrate all the tech "bells & whistles." Have a purpose for what you use.
  7. Don't monitor without participating. Be present in the course & discussions.
  6. Don't communicate primarily by email. Set up general question forums to avoid answering the same questions over and over again.
  5. Don't give too much freedom on due dates. Students need a schedule and deadlines.
  4. Don't save grading to the end of term. Students need feedback to be regular and formative. Set yourself due dates and let students know what they are so they will hold you accountable.
  3. Don't require a lot of synchronous activities. Most students take online classes because of schedule conflict. Whatever can be done with asynchronous tools, should be done that way. 
  2. Don't assume students know how to learn online. They need you to teach them to navigate the course and tools.
  1. Don't develop your course while you teach it. Plan ahead or you will be overwhelmed. 

Dr. Mandernach's full PowerPoint presentation will become available later and I will share that here. 

Dr. Williamson's presentation was titled "Getting Started in Our Quest to Instruct On Line: The Pep Talk." Dr. Williamson encouraged faculty to start by finding and utilizing the technology person that can help them through this process. She continued by encouraging instructors developing courses to try and view it from the student perspective and fix the confusing elements first. She emphasized the need to organize and label elements in order to guide students through the course. A few elements of teaching online that surprised Dr. Mandernach were the diversity of experience of her participants; the fact that groups often self-corrected; that three was simply too few for a group to have a meaningful and rich discussion, but that group collaboration works well. A final surprise she highlighted was that once the course was launched, the workload was not too overwhelming. 

I am excited to connect with the diverse group that the Office of Online and Distant Education has assembled. Hopefully we will all learn a lot as we work together. 

Sunday, April 22, 2012

Twitter for Educators

There are so many resources out there on using Twitter for educational purposes, it is sometimes difficult to make heads or tails of it. Here's a little mini lesson for my friends and colleagues interested in learning more about how to use this tool. I want to give you a few tips about hashtags and then share a list of my favorite educational tweeters and why I like them. I hope this is helpful.

Hashtags are those words you see with the # sign in front. They are the way information is organized and retrieved on Twitter.

  • One of the most popular hashtags is #FF and you'll see it often on Fridays. It stands for "follow Friday" and is a way in which people on Twitter recommend their favorite tweeters to their own followers. 
  • Within the scope of education, a very popular hashtag is #edchat and clicking on it or searching for it will give you a list of tweets related to education. Many education experts are discussing topics of interest in education at this very moment and you can get in on the conversation by replying to them and adding #edchat to your tweet as well.
  • At educational conferences a unique hashtag is often created to help participants use Twitter to communicate and network during the conference. Ask about a hashtag at your next professional development conference. 
A few of my favorite tweeters:
  • @TLTGROUP is the account for the Teaching, Learning, and Technology group, a non-profit organization that holds frequent online, free webinars on a variety of topics related to education. 
  • @EnglishRaven is an English teacher who blogs and often posts great instructional technology resources.
  • @EdTechSteve is a tech geek with a background in math and a desire to help teachers and students improving learning.
  • @BHobgood is a speaker whom I have had the pleasure to hear a few times. He is another technology person with a strong interest in culture and blended/online learning.
  • @ShawnTX is a technology expert at as school district in Texas and the co-host of a great podcast called the Tightwad Tech where they interview teachers and specialists to find great ways to exploit free/cheap instructional technology. I have spoken to Shawn a few times and was interviewed about social media once on the podcast. They are great guys with good senses of humor and fun to follow
  • @KathySchrock is a wonderful educator who publishes tons of resources online for free including her famous Bloomin' Apps! infographics. 
  • @ShellTerrell and @TomWhitby are co-founders of #edchat. Both post great links and lead the frequent #edchat discussions I mentioned before.
I could go on but this should get you started! Twitter can be a great place to find resources and discuss what is important to you in education. Explore these people and hashtags and see what else you can find. 

ps. If you want to follow me, you can find me at @_AmandaLWilson_

Monday, March 12, 2012

Embedding Advocacy Opportunities Into All That We Do

Embedding Advocacy Opportunities Into All That We Do: Lisa Lilley  On Twitter: @sralil  -- 

Lisa Lilley, the 2010 ACTFL TOY, spoke about ways to embed advocacy in what we do. She used the model big “C” and little “c” of culture to introduce a big “A” and little “a” of advocacy. The little “a” are the small things we can do. Some of the examples including displaying the “Discover Languages” logo in various places or sending out a classroom newsletter to parents. Big “A” ways included staying informed of the issues and keeping in touch with elected officials. Her ideas are well displayed in her handout which is called “Embedding Advocacy Opportunites Into All That We Do” and can be found on her website at this url: ( She also has additional resources on her website for foreign language teachers that are worth checking out.

Error as a ‘Positive’ Factor

Error as a ‘Positive’ Factor: John De Mado 
(all images below are the intellectual property of John De Mado and no copyright infringement is intended)

John De Mado spoke about the existence in language classes of not one, not two, but in fact three languages that any instructor a second or foreign language must deal with. The L1, the L2, and the student’s own interlanguage as he negotiated the movement from L1 to L2. 

He discouraged teachers from becoming editors of student interlanguage. Jokingly, he imitated the “gringo” accent of a typical American student learning Spanish (“tango” instead of “tengo” for example). While, as language teachers and language lovers, our natural tendency is to cringe or yell when we hear students say “grassy ass” instead of “gracias,” he begged us not to constantly edit our students. 

He asked us why we are afraid of letting students make errors. Overwhelmingly the answer given was fossilization. He shocked the audience of teachers by asserting that at the level that we teach there is no such thing. It was easy to hear the scoffs and see the rolling eyes. He repeated and insisted it was true! There was no evidence that our students were capable of fossilization because 1) they have such minimal language and 2) if they choose to pursue past level four or so, they won’t choose to fossilize. Choose to fossilize? Again, the audience scoffed but De Mado insisted that fossilization is a loss of facility and it is a choice to stop actively pursing and studying the language. It is a choice to discover and work toward correcting mistakes. 

Our students do not make mistakes, they make errors, he asserted. These are non-permanent. However, if we run students off they will never take ownership of the language and work to correct their errors. He asked how much we would spend to renovate an apartment that we didn’t own? Would we spend $10,000? $20,000? Of course not! It is not ours! So it is the same with language. As long as teachers are the editors and providers of language, it doesn’t belong to the student. They need put forth no effort to improve it. 

He suggested three strategies for facilitating language learning in a way that encourages students to own it. We need to create a safe space where risk-taking can happening. In the real world, students will need to take risks to use the language with native speakers. Second, we must leave room for intuition about language, as it would occur outside of the classroom. This means when a student pauses, we don’t give the answer, but give them time to work it out. Finally, we must let them be vulnerable. Help them understand that errors are a natural part of the process and that is how they learn.

He encouraged us to remove the word “mistake” from our professional vocabulary and always use the word “error” which basically carries the meaning of a learning opportunity. 
Another important strategy to make risk-taking, vulnerability, and intuition (RVI) successful in the classroom environment is to add it to the rubric and make it least worth as much as “accuracy” is. This way students take these behaviors seriously and you can encourage them to engage in the more readily because they are required. 

Returning to the metaphor of a language like a home, he asked what most people’s first homes look like. Most, he asserted, are “fixer uppers.” 

The role of grammar is to reduce error. It is largely non-communicative. It is identification, not communication. It doesn’t exist to create communication, it’s purpose is to avoid miscommunication. If students buy into the language in an upper level, then they can focus on grammar but at the beginning levels, the focus should be on communication with grammar serving only to support that communication. 
On a side note, if you ever get the chance to hear John De Mado speak, I highly recommend it. He is a high-energy and highly entertaining public speaker who really seems to know his stuff. Check out his website for some resources too.

Teaching Foreign Languages in the Elementary School: A Service Learning Initiative

Teaching Foreign Languages in the Elementary School: A Service Learning Initiative: E. Nicole Meyer

E. Nicole Meyer is a professor of French, Humanistic Studies, and Gender Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. In addition to her many duties, she coordinates and administrates a service learning project for undergraduate French students to teach elementary students some French. 

There are two sides to Meyer’s initiative, the undergraduates and the elementary school. The service provided to the elementary school is one in which those children volunteer to spend their recess, and in the coming semester after-school time, learning French. For the undergraduates, this is experience is a 1 or 2 credit internship style course. 

In order to set up a program like this Meyer emphasized the need to develop good relationships with elementary or preschool administrators. They will be key in making the program a success. It will be necessary to have a time and location for the sessions. Advertising and communication with parents will also be important. Scheduling for both the children and the undergraduates can be a challenge. 

From the university perspective, Meyer recommends that the undergraduate students be at least fifth semester language learners in order to have the necessary language ability. Before they are sent out they are then required to study second language acquisition theory. The students are required to develop a teaching portfolio of resources and lesson plans to pull from, complete with journal reflections and reports of their experiences once they begin in the classroom. Throughout the experience, the participants meet frequently to share resources and ideas. 

Content of the sessions include a basic introduction to the language, cultural exploration, and songs. Some activity ideas Meyers shared included: coloring books (Dover Books); using students’ backpacks for vocabulary; musical chairs with vocabulary or questions on post-it notes on each chair (in order to sit, students must answer the question); plastic easter eggs full of slips of papers with questions or vocabulary; cubes with clear sleeves on all sides with cards (cubes are pairs-one with verbs, one with subjects, for example); fake school store; matching games; giant paper (from a newspaper office) to draw big pictures on; and a TL party or celebration. 

This program is highly customizable depending on what needed to be accomplished. Wherever there is a need, a program like this would be invaluable. Grants and research could be done to support these types of programs. Some ideas I have about similar programs are ELL programs for young students and their parents in communities where there aren’t many resources of this nature already; a technology-enhanced career search support class for displaced worker or computer-skills for people who are missing basic skills to even meet requirements for entry into other programs supported by instructional technology students or education students with special interest or skill in technology; a community cultural enrichment program in which international students share their experiences with children or interested community members who’ve never had the opportunity to travel. The list could go on. It is important to develop a strong sense of the goal of such a program and develop a list of potential resources and need as a first step. 

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Opportunity is what really matters

Am I an outlier? I don’t necessarily see myself as exceptional or super successful. However, I have been the recipient of an extraordinarily high number of exceptional opportunities. Neither my cultural or familial heritage, nor my heredity, can be easily seen in who I have become at my current age of 30. My parents are hardworking blue collars, though my mother is now going back to school at the age of 49 to pursue a career as a medical technician. My grandparents are honest and caring rural residents who would be most proud to be described as good Christians. I am not ashamed, nor do I in any way make light of who my family is. They are exactly who they want to be and I love them dearly. However, it was my opportunities, on top of the inspiration they provided me to always try to be a good person and treat others fairly, that allowed me to become who I am today.

My first big opportunity came in the form of my high school Spanish teacher. A tiny, lively woman named Mary Lee Mitchell. Señora Mitchell did two things that sent me down my path with a skip. She showed me a love for the Spanish language unlike any other and she recommended me for a federally funded college-prep program called Upward Bound.

Upward Bound opened my eyes to a wider world than most kids born in Patrick County, Virginia are ever privileged enough to see. I met students from all over southwestern Virginia and together we learned so much more than how to get into college. We learned how to be successful in more fundamental ways. We learned to network. We had the opportunity to visit places like New Orleans, Orlando, Cleveland, and Columbus, to name a few. We were exposed to cultural events and visited many different universities up and down the eastern United States. Mostly, we learned the important lesson that we were good enough.

College started a little rough. Maybe I was overconfident. It took me a little while to find my place. Another amazing opportunity opened up to me when I met my husband, Brian. Brian and I were both students at Surry Community College in Dobson, NC. I was trying to get my grades back up from my false start. He was finishing an associates’ degree. When I met him, Bri was already accepted and due to start college at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC that fall. Lucky for me, he wasn’t opposed to my tagging along.

At Appalachian I found my home in the department of foreign languages and literatures. I connected with and learned from amazing colleagues, friends, and faculty. The supportive environment of the department was exactly what I needed to finish my undergraduate degree. In fact, I loved it there so much, I stayed on to complete a Master’s degree as well.

It was at that point I began again to search for what my next step would be. I knew I loved teaching introductory-level Spanish classes and that I was most happy at the university-level. Unfortunately, I was also aware that with only an MA, I stood little chance of earning tenure or a paycheck I could afford to live on. I was very unsure of what I wanted to do next. I knew I wasn’t interested in any PhD program in Spanish that I had ever heard of. I had only a passing interest in literature and linguistics and I knew that would not be enough to sustain me through a rigerous PhD program and a dissertation.

Fortunately, I heard about a degree over in the Reich college of education called an EdS, or Educational Specialist degree. Specializing in higher education, I found many interesting topics like assessment and accreditation, diversity in the classroom, and developmental education. I so enjoyed my EdS program, I couldn’t believe how fast it flew by.

Meanwhile, I still hadn’t managed to figure out where I was going next. In the summer before the last year of my EdS, I happened to hear about a program related both to assessment and foreign language study and managed to get involved. I was the only university-level instructor in an initiative that was clearly aimed at K-12 teachers. However, when the keynote speaker at the introduction conference gave her speech I happened to noticed that I recognized her name. Dr. Ali Moeller was on my very long list of contacts for potential PhD programs.

After her captivating keynote on assessment, I got an opportunity to speak with Dr. Moeller. She asked where I worked and when I told her, she asked if I knew a colleague of hers there, Dr. Beverly Moser. When I told her I used to be Dr. Moser's graduate assistant, she asked if I was “the one who builds the websites.” Apparently, my previous mentor had at some point been bragging about me. I was taken aback and honored.

This connection led me to my current home in Lincoln, Nebraska where I am thoroughly enjoying pursing a PhD in teacher education with Dr. Moeller. I feel like I am exactly where I should be and I am very happy and honored to be here. However, I recognize that I am here because of a long string of lucky opportunites. I am lucky to have been a student of Señora Mitchell’s. I am lucky to have been a participant in the Upward Bound program. I am lucky to have met my husband and followed him to Appalachian State. I am lucky to have been an assistant of Dr. Moser’s. I am lucky to now be studying with Dr. Moeller.

I am successful, not because I am a genius of some sort nor because my family had money or connections. I am here because I recognized and took advantage of every opportunity that was afforded me. I work hard because I appreciate where I am and I want to continue to take advantage of every opportunity I can. Mostly, I want to recognize these opportunities because others’ deserve them and I want to give back in any way that I can.

Am I an Outlier? I don’t know, but I believe Malcolm Gladwell is 100% right. Talent is important. Hard work is very important. But opportunity is also especially important.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Change the way you understand memory, Read this book!

Joshua Foer trained for one year and became the U.S. memory champion. In this book, he details his year of training and some techniques of mnemonics, as well as why remembering things are important and how this idea fell out of favor in the educational system.

This may be the most interesting non-fiction I've ever read. Foer's descriptions of the characters he met along his journey, especially his coach, Ed Cooke, are so rich I feel like I know these fascinating individuals. Personally, I'm inspired. I don't think I'll ever become a card memorizer but I plan to investigate ways to use this in the classes I take and those I teach. It's a fantastic and relatively quick read and I highly recommend checking it out.

Check out Foer's own synopsis:

Saturday, February 11, 2012


Two workshops and one keynote down, I’m about halfway through my MBLGTACC 2012 experience and I am so glad I came. The atmosphere here at Iowa State, despite the bitter cold outside, is warm and happy. Last night’s keynote speaker, Rev. Jamie Washington, set the tone of awareness and change. His talk, “Living, Leading, and Leaving the World Better,” challenged us to “get intentional” about making connections and preparing for the next step. He asked us to get introspective about how we are living, how we are leading, and how we are leaving. He encouraged us to be inclusive, change agents, reminding us that we did not begin this movement and it will not end with us.

My 8am (!) workshop was called “Debunking Myths about BDSM” and was led by Tynan Fox ( I was really touched to learn more about this dimension of sexuality, which Fox often referred to simply as kink. He emphasized that this was just the way he had always been and there was no reason for BDSM and kink to have the stigma that it does. This is not solely, nor even necessarily, about the traditional definition of sex. He talked about many myths but left us with the one truth that he hopes will become myth: Kinksters are invisible. 

At 9:15am, I attended Justin Ford’s presentation on Unpacking Privilege. I can’t say enough about how impressed I am with Ford’s presentation style. His activities engaged the audience on a deeply personal level. Yes, we all have different privileges and different levels of privilege depending on the various identity lenses, but making that statement versus really feeling its intention and meaning is the difference between reading this and being there. Ford emphasized more inclusive language about privilege, “racial” instead of “white” and “gender” instead of “male,” and the responsibility of those with various privileges to take action against these advantages and work together toward the common goal of equalizing the field. He concluded with a challenge to make a pledge to (1) be aware of our privilege; and (2) take action to equalize those advantages. (see document posted below)

I can’t wait to experience more of this remarkable conference and I am already getting really excited about MBLGTACC 2013! 
The following document is the intellectual property of Justin Ford and is used here with his permission.
30 Day Privilege Pledge